Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) can cause thyroid gland damage through humoral and cellular mechanisms. Antibodies against thyroperoxidase (Anti-TPO) and thyroglobulin
(anti-Tg) appearing during AITD usually precedes clinical hypothyroidism and should be used as a clinical tool in deciding upon treatment.
Presence of Anti-TPO in the body can also reduce the efficacy of IVF treatment. Pregnant women with anti-TPO are at risk of the following:
- Premature delivery
Pregnant women positive for anti-TPO Ab should consider careful post-partum and long-term follow-up due to high risk of subsequent clinical hypothyroidism.
Elevated serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is a non-specific indicator of thyroid dysfunction. Differentiated thyroid cancer may be identified and monitored using Tg and anti-Tg antibodies. The presence of anti-Tg invalidates Tg for monitoring response to thyroid treatments. Anti-Tg can be a surrogate marker for thyroid carcinoma.